linux IO工具iopp

linux下的IO检测工具之前最常用的是iostat ,不过iostat查看到的总的IO情况。如果要细看具体那一个程序点用的IO较高,可以使用iotop 。不过iotop 对内核版本和Python版本有要求,虽然目前主流的centos和ubuntu版本上都适用。不过考虑到其无法适用的场景,再推荐个可可以查看程序IO使用情况的工具iopp ---一个基于C语言开发的工具。

iopp非常mini ,源代码如下:

#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#define PROC "/proc"
#define GET_VALUE(v)
        p = strchr(p, ':');
        ++p;
        ++p;
        q = strchr(p, 'n');
        length = q - p;
        if (length >= BUFFERLEN)
        {
            printf("ERROR - value is larger than the buffer: %dn", __LINE__);
            exit(1);
        }
        strncpy(value, p, length);
        value[length] = '';
        v = atoll(value);
#define BTOKB(b) b >> 10
#define BTOMB(b) b >> 20
#define BUFFERLEN 255
#define COMMANDLEN 1024
#define VALUELEN 63
#define NUM_STRINGS 8
struct io_node
{
    int pid;
    long long rchar;
    long long wchar;
    long long syscr;
    long long syscw;
    long long read_bytes;
    long long write_bytes;
    long long cancelled_write_bytes;
    char command[COMMANDLEN + 1];
    struct io_node *next;
};
struct io_node *head = NULL;
int command_flag = 0;
int idle_flag = 0;
int mb_flag = 0;
int kb_flag = 0;
int hr_flag = 0;
/* Prototypes */
char *format_b(long long);
struct io_node *get_ion(int);
struct io_node *new_ion(char *);
void upsert_data(struct io_node *);
char *
format_b(long long amt)
{
    static char retarray[NUM_STRINGS][16];
    static int  index = 0;
    register char *ret;
    register char tag = 'B';
    ret = retarray[index];
    index = (index + 1) % NUM_STRINGS;
    if (amt >= 10000) {
        amt = (amt + 512) / 1024;
        tag = 'K';
        if (amt >= 10000) {
            amt = (amt + 512) / 1024;
            tag = 'B';
            if (amt >= 10000) {
                amt = (amt + 512) / 1024;
                tag = 'G';
            }
        }
    }
    snprintf(ret, sizeof(retarray[index]) - 1, "%lld%c", amt, tag);
    return (ret);
}
int
get_cmdline(struct io_node *ion)
{
    int fd;
    int length;
    char filename[BUFFERLEN + 1];
    char buffer[COMMANDLEN + 1];
    char *p;
    char *q;
    length = snprintf(filename, BUFFERLEN, "%s/%d/cmdline", PROC, ion->pid);
    if (length == BUFFERLEN)
        printf("WARNING - filename length may be too big for buffer: %dn",
                __LINE__);
    fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
    if (fd == -1)
        return 1;
    length = read(fd, buffer, sizeof(buffer) - 1);
    close(fd);
    buffer[length] = '';
    if (length == 0)
        return 2;
    if (command_flag == 0)
    {
        /*
         * The command is near the beginning; we don't need to be able to
         * the entire stat file.
         */
        p = strchr(buffer, '(');
        ++p;
        q = strchr(p, ')');
        length = q - p;
    }
    else
        p = buffer;
    length = length < COMMANDLEN ? length : COMMANDLEN;
    strncpy(ion->command, p, length);
    ion->command[length] = '';
    return 0;
}
struct io_node *
get_ion(int pid)
{
    struct io_node *c = head;
    while (c != NULL)
    {
        if (c->pid == pid)
            break;
        c = c->next;
    }
    return c;
}
int
get_tcomm(struct io_node *ion)
{
    int fd;
    int length;
    char filename[BUFFERLEN + 1];
    char buffer[BUFFERLEN + 1];
    char *p;
    char *q;
    length = snprintf(filename, BUFFERLEN, "%s/%d/stat", PROC, ion->pid);
    if (length == BUFFERLEN)
        printf("WARNING - filename length may be too big for buffer: %dn",
                __LINE__);
    fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
    if (fd == -1)
        return 1;
    length = read(fd, buffer, sizeof(buffer) - 1);
    close(fd);
    /*
     * The command is near the beginning; we don't need to be able to
     * the entire stat file.
     */
    p = strchr(buffer, '(');
    ++p;
    q = strchr(p, ')');
    length = q - p;
    length = length < BUFFERLEN ? length : BUFFERLEN;
    strncpy(ion->command, p, length);
    ion->command[length] = '';
    return 0;
}
struct io_node *
insert_ion(struct io_node *ion)
{
    struct io_node *c;
    struct io_node *p;
    /* Check the head of the list as a special case. */
    if (ion->pid < head->pid)
    {
        ion->next = head;
        head = ion;
        return head;
    }
    c = head->next;
    p = head;
    while (c != NULL)
    {
        if (ion->pid < c->pid)
        {
            ion->next = c;
            p->next = ion;
            return head;
        }
        p = c;
        c = c->next;
    }
    /* Append to the end of the list. */
    if (c == NULL)
        p->next = ion;
    return head;
}
void
get_stats()
{
    DIR *dir = opendir(PROC);
    struct dirent *ent;
    char filename[BUFFERLEN + 1];
    char buffer[BUFFERLEN + 1];
    char value[BUFFERLEN + 1];
    /* Display column headers. */
    if (hr_flag == 1)
        printf("%5s %5s %5s %8s %8s %5s %6s %7s %sn", "pid", "rchar", "wchar",
                "syscr", "syscw", "reads", "writes", "cwrites", "command");
    else if (kb_flag == 1)
        printf("%5s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %sn", "pid", "rchar", "wchar",
                "syscr", "syscw", "rkb", "wkb", "cwkb", "command");
    else if (mb_flag == 1)
        printf("%5s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %sn", "pid", "rchar", "wchar",
                "syscr", "syscw", "rmb", "wmb", "cwmb", "command");
    else
        printf("%5s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %8s %sn", "pid", "rchar", "wchar",
                "syscr", "syscw", "rbytes", "wbytes", "cwbytes", "command");
    /* Loop through the process table and display a line per pid. */
    while ((ent = readdir(dir)) != NULL)
    {
        int rc;
        int fd;
        int length;
        char *p;
        char *q;
        struct io_node *ion;
        struct io_node *old_ion;
        long long rchar;
        long long wchar;
        long long syscr;
        long long syscw;
        long long read_bytes;
        long long write_bytes;
        long long cancelled_write_bytes;
        if (!isdigit(ent->d_name[0]))
            continue;
        ion = new_ion(ent->d_name);
        if (command_flag == 1)
            rc = get_cmdline(ion);
        if (command_flag == 0 || rc != 0)
            /* If the full command line is not asked for or is empty... */
            rc = get_tcomm(ion);
        if (rc != 0)
        {
            free(ion);
            continue;
        }
        /* Read 'io' file. */
        length = snprintf(filename, BUFFERLEN, "%s/%s/io", PROC, ent->d_name);
        if (length == BUFFERLEN)
            printf("WARNING - filename length may be too big for buffer: %dn",
                    __LINE__);
        fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
        if (fd == -1)
        {
            free(ion);
            continue;
        }
        length = read(fd, buffer, sizeof(buffer) - 1);
        close(fd);
        buffer[length] = '';
        /* Parsing the io file data. */
        p = buffer;
        GET_VALUE(ion->rchar);
        GET_VALUE(ion->wchar);
        GET_VALUE(ion->syscr);
        GET_VALUE(ion->syscw);
        GET_VALUE(ion->read_bytes);
        GET_VALUE(ion->write_bytes);
        GET_VALUE(ion->cancelled_write_bytes);
        old_ion = get_ion(ion->pid);
        /* Display the pid's io data. */
        if (old_ion != NULL)
        {
            rchar = ion->rchar - old_ion->rchar;
            wchar = ion->wchar - old_ion->wchar;
            syscr = ion->syscr - old_ion->syscr;
            syscw = ion->syscw - old_ion->syscw;
            read_bytes = ion->read_bytes - old_ion->read_bytes;
            write_bytes = ion->write_bytes - old_ion->write_bytes;
            cancelled_write_bytes = ion->cancelled_write_bytes -
                    old_ion->cancelled_write_bytes;
            if (kb_flag == 1 && hr_flag == 0)
            {
                rchar = BTOKB(rchar);
                wchar = BTOKB(wchar);
                syscr = BTOKB(syscr);
                syscw = BTOKB(syscw);
                read_bytes = BTOKB(read_bytes);
                write_bytes = BTOKB(write_bytes);
                cancelled_write_bytes = BTOKB(cancelled_write_bytes);
            }
            else if (mb_flag == 1 && hr_flag == 0)
            {
                rchar = BTOMB(rchar);
                wchar = BTOMB(wchar);
                syscr = BTOMB(syscr);
                syscw = BTOMB(syscw);
                read_bytes = BTOMB(read_bytes);
                write_bytes = BTOMB(write_bytes);
                cancelled_write_bytes = BTOMB(cancelled_write_bytes);
            }
            if (!(idle_flag == 1 && rchar == 0 && wchar == 0 && syscr == 0 &&
                    syscw == 0 && read_bytes == 0 && write_bytes == 0 &&
                    cancelled_write_bytes == 0)) {
                if (hr_flag == 0)
                    printf("%5d %8lld %8lld %8lld %8lld %8lld %8lld %8lld %sn",
                            ion->pid,
                            rchar,
                            wchar,
                            syscr,
                            syscw,
                            read_bytes,
                            write_bytes,
                            cancelled_write_bytes,
                            ion->command);
                else
                    printf("%5d %5s %5s %8lld %8lld %5s %6s %7s %sn",
                            ion->pid,
                            format_b(rchar),
                            format_b(wchar),
                            syscr,
                            syscw,
                            format_b(read_bytes),
                            format_b(write_bytes),
                            format_b(cancelled_write_bytes),
                            ion->command);
            }
        }
        else if (idle_flag != 1)
            /*
             * No previous data, show 0's instead of calculating negatives
             * only if we are shoring idle processes.
             */
            printf("%5d %8d %8d %8d %8d %8d %8d %8d %sn",
                    ion->pid, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, ion->command);
        upsert_data(ion);
    }
    closedir(dir);
    return;
}
struct io_node *
new_ion(char *pid)
{
    struct io_node *ion;
    ion = (struct io_node *) malloc(sizeof(struct io_node));
    bzero(ion, sizeof(struct io_node));
    ion->pid = atoi(pid);
    return ion;
}
void
upsert_data(struct io_node *ion)
{
    struct io_node *n;
    /* List is empty. */
    if (head == NULL)
    {
        head = ion;
        return;
    }
    /* Check if we have seen this pid before. */
    n = head;
    while (n != NULL)
    {
        if (n->pid == ion->pid)
        {
            n->rchar = ion->rchar;
            n->wchar = ion->wchar;
            n->syscr = ion->syscr;
            n->syscw = ion->syscw;
            n->read_bytes = ion->read_bytes;
            n->write_bytes = ion->write_bytes;
            n->cancelled_write_bytes = ion->cancelled_write_bytes;
            /*
             * If the pids wrap, then the command may be different then before.
             */
            strcpy(n->command, ion->command);
            free(ion);
            return;
        }
        n = n->next;
    }
    /* Add this pid to the list. */
    head = insert_ion(ion);
    return;
}
void
usage()
{
    printf("usage: iopp -h|--helpn");
    printf("usage: iopp [-ci] [-k|-m] [delay [count]]n");
    printf("            -c, --command display full command linen");
    printf("            -h, --help display helpn");
    printf("            -i, --idle hides idle processesn");
    printf("            -k, --kilobytes display data in kilobytesn");
    printf("            -m, --megabytes display data in megabytesn");
    printf("            -u, --human-readable display data in kilo-, mega-, or giga-bytesn");
}
int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    int c;
    int delay = 0;
    int count = 0;
    int max_count = 1;
    while (1)
    {
        int option_index = 0;
        static struct option long_options[] = {
                { "command", no_argument, 0, 'c' },
                { "help", no_argument, 0, 'h' },
                { "human-readable", no_argument, 0, 'u' },
                { "idle", no_argument, 0, 'i' },
                { "kilobytes", no_argument, 0, 'k' },
                { "megabytes", no_argument, 0, 'm' },
                { 0, 0, 0, 0 }
        };
        c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "chikmu", long_options, &option_index);
        if (c == -1)
        {
            /* Handle delay and count arguments. */
            if (argc == optind)
                break; /* No additional arguments. */
            else if ((argc - optind) == 1)
            {
                delay = atoi(argv[optind]);
                max_count = -1;
            }
            else if ((argc - optind) == 2)
            {
                delay = atoi(argv[optind]);
                max_count = atoi(argv[optind + 1]);
            }
            else
            {
                /* Too many additional arguments. */
                usage();
                return 3;
            }
            break;
        }
        switch (c)
        {
        case 'c':
            command_flag = 1;
            break;
        case 'h':
            usage();
            return 0;
        case 'i':
            idle_flag = 1;
            break;
        case 'k':
            kb_flag = 1;
            break;
        case 'm':
            mb_flag = 1;
            break;
        case 'u':
            hr_flag = 1;
            break;
        default:
            usage();
            return 2;
        }
    }
    while (max_count == -1 || count++ < max_count)
    {
        get_stats();
        if (count != max_count)
            sleep(delay);
    }
    return 0;
}
<br />

将以上代码保存为iopp.c ,执行gcc -o iopp iopp.c 编译出可执行文件iopp 。具体用法可以使用./iopp -h查看,如果查出将结果输出到文件,可以执行类似如下的命令:

 ./iopp -i -k -c 1 > io.log
<br />

执行时具体各项指示的含义如下:

pid 进程ID
rchar 将要从磁盘读取的字节数
wchar 已经写入或应该要写入磁盘的字节数
syscr 读I/O数
syscw 写I/O数
rbytes 真正从磁盘读取的字节数
wbytes 真正写入到磁盘的字节数
cwbytes 因为清空页面缓存而导致没有发生操作的字节数
command 执行的命令
<span style="line-height:1.5;"><strong>2016-01-07后记</strong>:</span>



<span style="line-height:1.5;">iopp的实现原理非常简单,无非是遍历/proc/pid/io文件,读取出结果后,再通过进一步计算得出。大部分时候,我们只关注参数rbytes和wbytes两部分,上面贴的该版本的iopp在实际应用中很多时候并不尽人意,所以后续也有人出了基于c++优化的一个iopp,c++版本的输出结果如下图:</span>



<span style="line-height:1.5;"><img src="https://www.361way.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/iopp.png" width="485" height="183" title="linux iopp" alt="linux iopp" /><br />

输出结果是时时刷新的,比iotop轻量级。



C 语言iopp github地址:<a href="https://github.com/markwkm/iopp" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://github.com/markwkm/iopp</a>



C++ 版iopp github地址:<a href="https://github.com/hackerforward/iopp" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://github.com/hackerforward/iopp</a>

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